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诺如病毒高发季,家长老师需警惕!
作者:王晧 来源:上海市实验学校 日期:2019-11-094659
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诺如病毒高发季,家长老师需警惕!

Be aware of Norovirus season!

    近几年,一个既熟悉又陌生的病毒强势进入我们的视线,其发病急、

传播速度快等特点,被大家熟知,这个病毒就是诺如病毒。

     目前正是诺如病毒感染高发期,60%-80%的冬季腹泻都因它而起。特别是学生更易感染!不过,诺如病毒感染并不难治,作为一种自限性疾病一般3天左右症状即可消失,重症患者对症治疗亦可康复!那么,到底诺如病毒是什么?它怎么传播的?有什么症状?如何有效预防呢?今天我们就跟着小视频一起来了解一下吧。

What is norovirus?

As a self-limiting disease, norovirus infection is not difficult to treat. It usually take 3 days or so for the symptoms to disappear.  

诺如病毒的“简历”

      诺如病毒属杯状病毒,又名诺沃克病毒,之后被改名为诺如病毒。诺如病毒是一种急性胃肠炎病毒,感染后引起胃肠道炎症,表现为恶心、呕吐、腹痛、腹泻、腹部痉挛等胃肠炎症状,以及头痛、发热、寒战、肌肉疼痛等病毒感染的全身中毒症状,严重时可因腹泻脱水致死。

诺如病毒感染性腹泻在全世界范围内均有流行,全年均可发生感染,感染对象主要是成人和学龄儿童,寒冷季节呈现高发,可在学校、餐馆、医院、托儿所等地集中暴发。

Symptoms

Norovirus is an acute gastroenteritis virus that causes gastrointestinal inflammation after infection, characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, abdominal cramps and other gastroenteritis symptoms, as well as headache, fever, chills, muscle pain, etc.

传播途径

诺如病毒传染性强,所有人群均易感。病人发病前至康复后2周,均可在粪便中检到诺如病毒,但患病期和康复后三天是传染性最强的时期

通常通过以下途径获得感染:

1.食用或饮用被诺如病毒污染的食物或水;

2.触摸被诺如病毒污染的物体或表面,然后将手指放入口中;

3.接触过诺如病毒感染患者,如照顾患者、与患者分享食物或共用餐具,诺如病毒在密闭场所中传播速度快,易引起暴发。

Route transmission

1. Eating or drinking food or water contaminated with norovirus.

2. Touching an object or surface contaminated with norovirus and place your finger in the mouth.

3. Patients who have been exposed to norovirus infection, such as caring for patients, sharing food with patients, or sharing utensils, are easy to catch virus.  

临床表现 

     诺如病毒可引起急性肠胃炎,平均潜伏期为12-48小时最常见的症状是腹泻、呕吐、反胃、恶心和胃痛,其他包括发热、头痛和全身酸痛等。多数患者发病后1-3天即可康复

 

Clinical performance

The average incubation period is 12-48 hours, with the most common symptoms being diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and stomach pain, and others including fever, headache and general aches. Most patients recover within 1-3 days of the onset of the disease.

护理病人有讲究

诺如病毒尚无特效治疗药物,但对症、支持治疗后,病人可自愈

隔离 病人需居家或在医院隔离治疗。病人需要单独的饮食、生活用品。

防护 处理病人的呕吐物和粪便一定要带手套和口罩。接触病人及其污染的物品后及时洗手。

消毒 暴露呕吐物应先用一次性材料全面覆盖,再用5000mg/L~10000mg/L含氯消毒剂擦拭表面,消毒5~10分钟后,再清理;使用过的洁具也应彻底消毒。

Caring patients

Quarantine Patients need to be treated in isolation at home or in hospital. Patients need separate diets and daily necessities.

Safeguard  People who take care of the patients need to wear gloves and masks to treat the patient's vomit and feces. Wash your hands in a timely manner after touching patients and their contaminated items.

Sterilizations Exposed vomit should be first covered with disposable materials, and then wipe the surface with 5000mg / L to 10000mg / L chlorine disinfectant, and then clean in 5 to 10 minutes. 


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